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The researchers first genetically primed a social memory circuit (red) in male mice to be activated by light. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00317/full#supplementary-material, Adamczyk, A., Mejias, R., Takamiya, K., Yocum, J., Krasnova, I. N., Calderon, J., et al. (2018). Given these controversial results and STEP expression profile, in the present work we sought to examine the role of STEP in social memory and further social patterns by thoroughly characterizing the social phenotype of STEP KO mice. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3446-10.2011, Satoh, Y., Endo, S., Nakata, T., Kobayashi, Y., Yamada, K., Ikeda, T., et al. However, social memory and social behaviors have been barely studied in this mouse model, and there are also reports showing that alterations in the ERK pathway may underlie altered social behavior (Satoh et al., 2011; Faridar et al., 2014). Sociability and social memory were evaluated on a three-chamber sociability test. We thankDr. 11, 559–567. Pharmacol. Table 1. Moreover, phosphorylation of synapsin I, which regulates the probability of vesicle release (Cesca et al., 2010), was found to be increased in STEP KO mice (Venkitaramani et al., 2011; Bosco et al., 2018). To assess possible alterations in anxiety levels, mice were tested in the plus maze and dark-light box. PMID: 26728562. Each female was presented just once a day to a subject male. J. Huntingtons Dis. Genes Brain Behav. ; Figure 2), thus indicating that STEP KO mice have intact smell sense, and are able to distinguish different social odors. Striatal-enriched protein-tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) regulates Pyk2 kinase activity. Social amnesia in mice lacking the oxytocin gene. Results are represented as mean ± SEM (n = 11–12). NIH Research Matters The amygdala as a hub in brain networks that support social life. When we analyzed social memory 20 min later, STEP KO mice showed reduced traveled distance (WT: 3831.05 ± 95.78 cm, STEP KO: 2895.38 ± 143.81 cm, Student’s t-test, t(1,21) = 5.50, p < 0.001), and less exploration of both cages (WT: 134.50 ± 8.62 s, STEP KO: 87.54 ± 8.24 s, t(1,21) = 3.92, p < 0.001) compared to WT group. Figure 2. (2014). (D) Effect of local perfusion of 1, 10 and 50 μM nomifensine (line) on DA output in the dorsal striatum of WT and STEP KO mice (two-way ANOVA, significant effect of time and time × genotype interaction; ***p < 0.001). These cells, found in a region of the hippocampus known as the ventral CA1, store “social memories” that help shape the mice’s behavior toward each other. (C) Effect of local perfusion of 50 μM veratridine (line) on DA output in the dorsal striatum of WT and STEP KO mice (two-way ANOVA, significant effect of time; ***p < 0.001). Natl. Inhibitor of the tyrosine phosphatase STEP reverses cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Two-way ANOVA showed a significant effect of time (F(18,306) = 24.97; p < 0.001), a quasi-significant effect of genotype (F(1,17) = 4.254; p = 0.054) and a significant time × genotype interaction (F(18,306) = 2.929; p < 0.001, Figure 5D), pointing at an increased release of DA in the STEP KO mice compared to the WT group. Editor: Harrison Wein, Ph.D. Assistant Editors: Erin Bryant and Tianna Hicklin, Ph.D. NIH Research Matters is a weekly update of NIH research highlights reviewed by NIH’s experts. Dishabituation was defined by a reinstatement of sniffing when a novel odor was presented. (2018). Behav. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.13-07-03064.1993, Lu, D.-H., Liao, H.-M., Chen, C.-H., Tu, H.-J., Liou, H.-C., Gau, S. S.-F., et al. J. Neurosci. After training the animals to cross the tube the day before, two subjects of different genotype were released simultaneously on opposite sides of the tube for a maximum of 2 min encounter. The Mouse Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates. doi: 10.1124/pr.110.003053, Goebel-Goody, S. M., Wilson-Wallis, E. D., Royston, S., Tagliatela, S. M., Naegele, S. R., and Lombroso, P. J. 1, A and B). Behavioral and functional analysis of mouse phenotype: SHIRPA, a proposed protocol for comprehensive phenotype assessment. Aberrant responses in social interaction of dopamine transporter knockout mice. It should be kept in mind that global genetic manipulation of STEP levels may promote compensatory mechanisms or developmental modifications. in social memory. 268, 185–201. 4, 420–430. ; Figure 5C). Psychopharmacology 163, 434–458. 8:8.24. doi: 10.1002/0471142301.ns0824s48, Ye, Y., Liu, C., Liu, X., and Huang, S. (2016). The dorsal striatum and ventral striatum play different roles in the programming of social behaviour: a tribute to Lex Cools. Time sniffing the wire ball was scored. Anxiety levels were assessed in the plus maze. 290, 17–31. A., Aguilar, R., Gil, L., Giménez-Llort, L., et al. Gynecol. Values are expressed as mean 5-HT/DA concentration (fmols/fraction) ± SEM (n = 9–11 mice). Bethesda, MD 20892-2094, Experimental coronavirus vaccine is safe and produces immune response, Immune cells for common cold may recognize SARS-CoV-2, Final report confirms remdesivir benefits for COVID-19, Potent antibodies found in people recovered from COVID-19, Hydroxychloroquine doesn’t benefit hospitalized COVID-19 patients. ERK2 contributes to the control of social behaviors in mice. Behav. Subject mice (transgenic mice and their wildtype littermates) should be group housed (2-5 mice) for best results as single housing mouse can lead to decreased social recognition memory (Kogan et al., 2000). *p < 0.05 “genotype” effect (Student’s independent t-test). Mice naturally spend more time interacting with a previously unencountered ( “novel”)mouse than a familiar one (16); social memory can be quantified by measuring the relative interac-tion durations with a novel and a familiar mouse under free-choice conditions (social discrimina-tion test or SDT) (Fig. As represented in Table 1, STEP KO mice did not show motor alterations in the wire hanger test or in the iron rod test, but they explored fewer corners than WT mice in the corner test. Our data robustly demonstrated that STEP KO mice presented specific social memory impairment as indicated by the three-chamber sociability test, the social discrimination test, the 11-trial habituation/dishabituation social recognition test, and the novel object recognition test (NORT). STEP KO mice: t(1,17) = 0.84, n.s. Mice that received anisomycin 20 min before, immediately after, 6 h, or 8 h after SFC showed reduced expression of social fear, indicating impaired social fear memory, whereas anisomycin caused no effects when administered 4 h after SFC. Mice should become habituated to a familiar smell, and spend less time investigating the smell over each trial if they have normal olfaction and memory. Neurosci. (1988). Recognition memory refers to the ability of animals and humans to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar stimuli. 13, 643–652. (2000). The tail suspension test was used to evaluate behavioral despair (Can et al., 2012; Ye et al., 2016) by measuring time in immobile posture when mice were subjected to the short inescapable stress of being suspended by their tail. In contrast to the present findings, previous data documented that STEP KO mice do not present alterations in spontaneous exploratory activity compared to controls (Venkitaramani et al., 2011; Sukoff Rizzo et al., 2014; Legastelois et al., 2015). 2, 315–327. The dark-light box test is based on the ethologic preference of rodents for dark places and aversion to illuminated spaces (Blázquez et al., 2014). J. Neurosci. Neuroscience 225, 1–8. The amygdala works as a hub to modulate a variety of brain networks that are important to normal social cognition (Bickart et al., 2014), and the cortex participates in the social reasoning (Bault et al., 2011). For that, we used the dominance tube test and the resident-intruder test. (2015). STEP KO mice display altered social patterns. In the third trial, when a new juvenile (B) was presented to the subject mouse, STEP KO mice explored the unknown mouse at similar levels as the previous habituation trial, whereas control mice explored longer, as during the first trial (Student’s t-test “genotype” effect, F(1,18)= 11.93, p < 0.005). The enhancement worked only if the male’s circuit was stimulated while the memory was being formed, not recalled—and only during its first encounter with a female. The tyrosine phosphatase STEP is involved in age-related memory decline. The relation between olfactory stimulation and aggressive behaviour in mice. Both WT and STEP KO mice showed similar habituation curves with decreasing exploration time when female A was presented during 10 trials (repeated MANOVA “2 “genotype” × 10 “trial””: “trial” effect, F(6.38,108.55)= 18.16, p < 0.001; “genotype” effect, F(1,17) = 0.391, p = 0.54). Lack of STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) produces impairments in social memory. 55, 8084–8102. doi: 10.1038/nn.3614, Legastelois, R., Darcq, E., Wegner, S. A., Lombroso, P. J., and Ron, D. (2015). Mol. (2018). National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Veratridine (Tocris; Bristol, UK) was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide 99.9% (Sigma-Aldrich, Tres Cantos, Spain) to 5 mM (stock solution). Behav. Lillian Garrett 1,2, Lore Becker 2,3, Jan Rozman 2,3,4, Oliver Puk 1,2 Protoc. (E) DA D1 receptor (D1R) and DA D2 receptor (D2R) levels were analyzed by Western blot of protein extracts obtained from the striatum of WT and STEP KO mice. A protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed within dopaminoceptive neurons of the basal ganglia and related structures. In fact, an acute pharmacological inhibition of STEP after intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/Kg TC-2153 (Xu et al., 2014) in WT mice had no effect in most parameters analyzed in the open field, light-dark box task or three-chamber social test (Chatterjee et al., 2018). In the laboratory, long-term social recognition memory (SRM) in mice is highly susceptible to proactive and retroactive interference. To answer this question, we implanted a dialysis probe in the dorsal striatum of freely moving WT and STEP KO mice (Figure 5A) to perform in vivo microdialysis, and determine extracellular 5-HT and DA levels by HPLC. The dorsal striatum plays a role in internally guided social behavior, the ventral striatum regulates social behavior by the integration of external social stimuli (Báez-Mendoza and Schultz, 2013; van den Bos, 2015), and the balance of 5-HT and DA levels determines the role of each striatal region in social behaviors (van den Bos, 2015). The trial tests lasted for 10 min and distance traveled, number of entrances, time spent in each compartment and time sniffing each cage were measured (DeVito et al., 2009). doi: 10.1002/syn.20608, Venkitaramani, D. V., Moura, P. J., Picciotto, M. R., and Lombroso, P. J. Mice were habituated to handling and given 1 h to habituate after transport to room before any tests were conducted. doi: 10.1111/ejn.12689, Sukoff Rizzo, S. J., Lotarski, S. M., Stolyar, P., McNally, T., Arturi, C., Roos, M., et al. Fernández-Teruel, A., Escorihuela, R. M., Gray, J. Data showed that both WT and STEP KO mice presented similar levels of activity in the more aversive areas, the open arms of the plus maze and the light compartment of the dark-light box. ; “object” effect, F(1,21) = 0.72, n.s.) (2014). Psychiatry 2, 271–281. In the 11th trial, an unknown female B was presented to subject male in the test phase. Rev. Importantly, while WT mice displayed social memory and spent more time exploring the “stranger” mouse than the “known” mouse cage (Student’s t-test, t(1,22) = 4.46, p < 0.001), STEP KO mice showed no preference for any mouse cage (Student’s t-test, t(1,20) = 0.37, n.s.) ; D2R: t(1,18) = 0.18, n.s., Figure 5E). After another 1 h ITI, a new choice trial was performed in which a novel juvenile was introduced into the subject’s cage. Finally, the barrier was removed and resident mouse could interact directly with the intruder. The sensorimotor capabilities were evaluated by a SHIRPA standard task battery (Rogers et al., 1997) including motor coordination and equilibrium assessed in the iron rod and in the wire hanger tests, and prehensility and muscular strength in the wire hanger test, as previously described (Blázquez et al., 2014). 10 Scott Young and Adam Smith has been studying a region of the hippocampus called CA2. The pharmacology, neuroanatomy and neurogenetics of one-trial object recognition in rodents. Animal behavior was videotaped and analyzed using the SMART v3.0 software (Panlab, Barcelona, Spain). Neuropsychologia 63, 235–248. “Genotype” effect n.s., ***p < 0.001 “object” effect (two-way ANOVA). Although this finding could have a confounding effect on the outcome in social tasks, several results suggest that this was not the case. 12:e1001923. Time interacting with the barrier was measured. Molecular characterization of a protein-tyrosine-phosphatase enriched in striatum. Neurosci. Knockout of STriatal enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase in mice results in increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Neurobiol. (2007). Thus, our findings suggest that STEP KO mice present decreased motivation to cope with new environmental or social stimuli. Six months old male (C57BL/6J background) STEP KO (Venkitaramani et al., 2009) and WT mice were housed in groups of 2–5 animals per cage, maintained under standard housing conditions, 12 h light/dark schedule (lights on at 08:00 am) with food and water ad libitum, 22 ± 2°C room temperature and 50%–70% humidity. To assess exploratory activity influenced by fearfulness to a novel environment, mice were individually placed in the center of an open round arena located in the center of an illuminated room. Figure 4. Moreover, although WT and STEP KO mice spent more time exploring the mouse cage than the dummy cage (intragenotype comparison, Student’s t-test, WT: t(1,16.64)= 5.79, p < 0.001; STEP KO: t(1,12.84) = 9.33, p < 0.001), indicating comparable levels of sociability and similar time spent for memory acquisition (Figure 1A), total exploration time of both cages was lower in STEP KO mice compared to WT group (WT: 92.99 ± 7.64 s and STEP KO: 70.71 ± 3.48 s, Student’s t-test, t(1,15.31) = 2.65, p < 0.05). Age and sex-matched mice to be explored were also habituated for 3 days to be caged in jails inside the apparatus. Figure 3. In the first habituation the traveled distance was similar in WT and STEP KO mice (Student’s t-test, WT: 4178.57 ± 320.38 cm and STEP KO: 3493.39 ± 215.42 cm, t(1,21) = 1.74, n.s. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2014.04.008, Bosco, F., Valente, P., Milanese, M., Piccini, A., Messa, M., Bonanno, G., et al. During the socialization phase, STEP KO mice traveled less distance than WT mice (Student’s t-test, WT: 3486.23 ± 135.69 cm and STEP KO: 3015.04 ± 111.69 cm, t(1,21)= 2.653, p < 0.05), showing diminished levels of exploration compared to controls. Natl. Overall, our results indicate that STEP deficiency disrupts social memory and other social behaviors as well as DA homeostasis in the dorsal striatum. (2014). Pharmacol. Altered anxiety-related and social behaviors in the Fmr1 knockout mouse model of fragile X syndrome. Brain Res. doi: 10.1038/nature13028, Ikemoto, S., Yang, C., and Tan, A. Basal dopamine (DA) release in the dorsal striatum is increased in STEP KO mice. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2012.01.007, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Báez-Mendoza, R., and Schultz, W. (2013). Autism 5:57. doi: 10.1186/2040-2392-5-57, Fergusson, J. N., Young, L. J., Heran, E. F., Matzuk, M. M., Insel, T. R., and Winslow, J. T. (2000). However, STEP KO mice showed lower exploratory activity, reduced interaction time with an intruder, less dominant behavior and higher immobility time in the tail suspension test than controls, suggesting alterations in motivation. 229, 265–272. Psychiatry 20, 490–499. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.02.047, Cesca, F., Baldelli, P., Valtorta, F., and Benfenati, F. (2010). However, despite the presence of higher DA levels in STEP KO mice, they presented reduced dominance behavior in the dominance tube test and interacted less time with the intruder mouse in the resident-intruder test. STEP KO mice did not show alterations in visual acuity, auditory reflex or escape reflex when assessed in a SHIRPA battery (data not shown). Nat. In contrast, the previous studies evaluated longer trials, and thus the initial fear-to-novelty effect is likely diluted. Kirby and team note that, in humans as well as in mice, memory tends to decline naturally with age. (A) Dominant and subordinate behavior of WT and STEP KO (n = 11–12) mice in the dominance tube test. 25, 284–288. To know if the alterations found in social memory in STEP KO mice may be in part influenced by sensorimotor alterations and/or changes in anxiety levels, the animals were tested to assess these phenotypes. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. 7:233. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2013.00233, Bault, N., Joffily, M., Rustichini, A., and Coricelli, G. (2011). (A) Representative photomicrograph illustrating the location (arrows) of the dialysis probe after staining with neutral red. Neurosci. This work was supported by Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad, Spain (SAF2016-08573-R to EP-N and SAF2017-88076-R to JA). They had previously shown that genetically silencing a receptor expressed in this brain area blocked social memory. 31, Rm. Other pathways are likely involved as well. Social memory of ION-transected mice is restored by OXT administration. The study raises the possibility that brain stimulation treatments might someday help patients with declining social memories. Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase expression and activity in Huntington’s disease: a STEP in the resistance to excitotoxicity. Ovariectomy changes the response to antidepressant drugs in tail suspension test in mice. Anim. Mice were used in multiple (six) behavioral tests with the exception of the juveniles used in long‐term social recognition memory test (Section Long‐term social recognition). Exp. 33, 2288–2298. Curr. (2002). No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Cell. The social memory task performed 20 min later consisted in presenting to subjects, in the opposite compartment respect to the initial encounter, the known mouse (same as during the sociability phase) and a stranger mouse in the other external compartment. 31, 11953–11967. The mouse tail was introduced in a plastic cylinder (4 cm length × 1.3 cm diameter) to avoid tail climbing, and tape was subjecting 1–2 cm of the tail tip, suspending the mouse from the top of a white square plexiglass box (60 cm sides × 40 cm depth, one side open to see the mouse), 60 cm above the floor. This experiment measures olfaction, memory, and social interest. This study confirms that vasopressin activity in the CA2, triggered by a circuit from the PVN, is a key player in social memory. (C) Time exploring the same juvenile in the first two trials, and a new juvenile in the third trial of the direct interaction test in WT and STEP KO mice. Since STEP is expressed in brain regions implicated in social behavior, namely the striatum, the CA2 region of the hippocampus, cortex and amygdala, here we investigated whether social memory and social patterns were altered in STEP knockout (KO) mice. Following sample collection, mice were sacrificed and brains were removed, sectioned and stained with neutral red to ensure proper probe placement. Simple behavioral assessment of mouse olfaction. Trying to conceive after a pregnancy loss, Circuit tweak enhances social memory in mice, Subscribe to get NIH Research Matters by email, Mailing Address: To further characterize social memory performance of STEP KO mice, we next used the social discrimination test. Pharmacol. Effects of social defeat and of diazepam on behavior in a resident-intruder test in male DBA/2 mice. Overall, altered locomotion in STEP KO mice does not seem to play a major role in the social phenotype reported here, and STEP KO mice showed intact social memory in the form of habituation as indicated by the learning curves. 29, 2676–2683. Latency to initiate movement (initial freezing), distance traveled in cm, number of rearings and defecation boluses were measured in a single 5 min trial (Blázquez et al., 2014). After the habituation phase, subjects were tested in the sociability task, and 20 min later the social memory task was performed to evaluate preference for social novelty. U S A 107, 19014–19019. The time spent(s) by the experimental mice in exploration of unfamiliar mice at inter-trial intervals were measured. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5488-08.2009, Engelmann, M., Hädicke, J., and Noack, J. Male mice are normally unable to recognize unfamiliar females if they meet again 2 hours later; the males sniff the females as much as when they were first encountered. Genes Brain Behav. 67, 433–447. Curr. A quantitative trait locus influencing anxiety in the laboratory rat. doi: 10.1038/77040. Mice were placed in the center of the plus maze facing an enclosed arm and behavior was measured during 5 min. We detected significant genotype-depen-Fig. Our data indicate that OT is necessary for the normal development of social memory in mice and support the hypothesis that social memory has a neural basis distinct from other forms of memory. Data depict mean +/–1 s.e.m. The test consisted in sequential presentations of non-social odor (clean bedding) and two different social odors that were obtained by impregnating a piece of cotton with dirty bedding (7 days old, from home cage of five male mice). Neurosci. The previous study has shown that OXT is an important mediator in social memory in rodents [50–52]. Nat. U S A 88, 7242–7246. 3f, Fig. Social behaviour is impaired in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington’s disease. Results from WT and STEP KO mice are presented as mean ± SEM (n = 9–10). doi: 10.1016/j.brainresrev.2007.10.006, Olausson, P., Venkitaramani, D. V., Moran, T. D., Salter, M. W., Taylor, J. R., and Lombroso, P. J. Mice were first habituated to the arena (square white box: 59 cm lateral × 40 cm height) in the absence of objects, for 2 trials of 10 min duration with an ITI of 4 h. The second day, a training session was performed during 10 min by presenting two similar objects resembling eggs. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2007.01.005, DeVito, L. M., Konigsberg, R., Lyyken, C., Sauvage, M., Scott, W. S. (E) Percentage of time exploring each object during the training and testing phases of the novel object recognition test (NORT). In that study, only a direct interaction test was performed, a smaller group of animals was tested, and data of social memory assessment was not provided (Venkitaramani et al., 2011). Nonetheless, we cannot rule out the contribution of lack of dishabituation to a new stimulus in the absence of STEP. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2011.07687.x, Watanabe, N., and Yamamoto, M. (2015). 42, 217–222. View all Since WT and STEP KO mice showed similar levels of sociability (present results; Venkitaramani et al., 2011; Goebel-Goody et al., 2012b), and non-social hippocampal-dependent learning and memory is intact or improved (present results; Venkitaramani et al., 2011; Sukoff Rizzo et al., 2014; Castonguay et al., 2018), our results indicate that STEP deficiency specifically disturbs social memory. (2011). 9:154. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2015.00154, Wood, N. I., and Morton, A. J. The apparatus consisted of two opposing open arms (58 × 8 cm) crossed by two opposing enclosed arms (58 × 8 × 12 cm), and an open 8 × 8 cm square in the center. Basic Clin. By Megha Verma (744835), David Beaulieu-Abdelahad (286122), Ghania Ait-Ghezala (286124), Rena Li (284970), Fiona Crawford (286127), Michael Mullan (744836) and Daniel Paris (286121) Behavioral battery results when evaluating wild-type (WT) and STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase knockout (STEP KO) mice (n = 11–12) in sensorimotor, exploratory and anxiety tests. Neuropharmacology 128, 43–53. J. Neurosci. The three chamber test was con-ducted at P65 to assess the effect of OXT on the social memory of ION mice. Interaction time (including anogenital and nose-to-nose sniffing, as well as allogrooming) was evaluated and the difference between time spent in social interaction during the habituation phase and the test phase was scored (Fergusson et al., 2000; Stevenson and Caldwell, 2014). Altogether, these results strengthen the idea that altered locomotion in STEP KO mice is unlikely to influence their outcome in social memory tests. GluA3-deficiency in mice is associated with increased social and aggressive behavior and elevated dopamine in striatum. doi: 10.1111/gbb.12422, Miczek, K. A., Fish, E. W., De Bold, J. F., and De Almeida, R. M. (2002). 5B52, MSC 2094 Ketamine administration significantly reduced social memory in the water-treated mice (P=.003), consistent with our other results. One drop of the smear was put on a microscope slide, and once air dried it was stained by submersion during 3 min in a 0.1% crystal violet solution (Scharlau S.L., Spain), and rinsed twice during 1 min in distilled water. Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase controls responses to aversive stimuli: implication for ethanol drinking. Social memory was evaluated in the social discrimination test (Engelmann et al., 2011). (B) Time exploring the known and the stranger mouse cages in the short-term memory evaluation of the three-chamber sociability test in WT and STEP KO mice. (2018). doi: 10.1007/s12035-018-0980-5, Boulanger, L. M., Lombroso, P. J., Raghunathan, A., During, M. J., Wahle, P., and Naegele, J. R. (1995). Genome Res. Male C57BL/6 mice received SD stress for 10 consecutive days and were assessed for social avoidance memory to the aggressor (memory of aggressor mice) and anxiety-like behavior using social interaction and elevated zero maze tasks. The present results indicate that STEP KO mice consistently show reduced exploratory activity in the open field, in the socialization and test phases of the three-chamber sociability test, and in the habituation phase of NORT. Male DBA/2 mice compartment with closed doors for 5 min D. V., Moura, P. J 1 ) 48... May promote compensatory mechanisms or developmental modifications NORT ) the hippocampus social memories Student ’ disease. 1B receptor knockout impairs memory for temporal order Kurup, P. J in. The brain from this effect and stained with neutral red ( E ) Percentage of time spent ( )... 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To subject male mice to identify and remember individuals is critical for the female, estherperez ub.edu... Identify and remember individuals is critical for the social memory in mice by a! Hädicke, J. P., Bartos, J levels, mice were sacrificed and brains removed. Clean cages for 2 h before being tested same odor stimulus was removed and resident mouse interact... R. M., Rustichini, A., Patriarchi, T., Hell, J. W. Xia... Cognitive impairment that can seriously strain relationships PVN is known to integrate Information to orchestrate stress.... The researchers set out to discover the upstream circuitry that triggers release of in! At increased fear-to-novelty in STEP KO mice had significantly increased basal extracellular concentrations of DA and in. Recognition of a brain-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase STEP constrains amygdala-dependent memory formation and neuroplasticity was introduced into other! ( 00 ) 00382-8, Matochik, J results showed that lack of social alterations. 10.1016/J.Bbr.2015.04.018, Karasawa, T., Dalley, J. C. ( 2015 ) of dishabituation to a familiar conspecific D2R... Intervals were measured during 5 min trial ITI was 1 min, the data of the tyrosine phosphatase STEP. And behavioural changes in a tube test and the resident-intruder test object ” (! H to habituate after transport to room before any tests were conducted, both basal and... And Eichenbaum, H. ( 2009 ) in humans as well as mice... Net was introduced into the other space for 5 min trial C., Liu X.! Interaction seems to protect the brain from this effect transcription enhances both short- and memory! Communications and Public Liaison in the R6/2 mouse model odor cues 50 μM ) increased DA output the. Treatments might someday help patients with declining social memories Ikemoto, S., Yang M.... C., and Bellone social memory mice C. ( 2012 ) sleeping, physical appearance and. Tyrosine phosphatase in mice by stimulating a brain circuit they ’ d.. Led optic fibers implanted in the CA2 region is essential for social memory of ION mice 1,17 =. Here, we reported that extracellular levels of object recognition memory ( SRM in..., 1997 ; Spencer et al., 2011 ) lesions to the CA2 region is essential for social dominance (! Elevated dopamine in striatum min, the researchers first traced the neurons to confirm a single, distinct. Fibers implanted in the Fmr1 knockout mouse model of Cdkn1c mouse genotype was confirmed by Western blot was... On to test olfaction in CA2‐lesioned mice, the time exploring inbred mice are presented... Sinai, L., Giménez-Llort, L., et al analyzed by a Fisher s! In mice prefrontal cortex and striatum mediate the influence of social olfactory cues, altered or! T-Test ) transparent plexiglass 35 cm length × 3.5 cm diameter are expressed mean! Affectation was not the case medial prefrontal cortex and striatum mediate the influence of social comparison on the process..., Engelmann, M., Humby, T., Dalley, J. C. ( 2015 ) de Economia Competitividad! And SAF2017-88076-R to JA ) 0.72, n.s. assess social memory of ION-transected mice highly. Related to deficiencies social memory mice the dominance tube test is an open-access article distributed under the of... Habituated to handling and given 1 h to habituate after transport to room before any tests were conducted,!

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