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Ltd., New Delhi, 2001. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. It is also required to maintain the vacuum breakers provided to prevent any cylinder collapse. Singeing machine should be invariably being provided with a solenoid valve on the fuel line to arrest the fuel supply, in the event of an electrical failure. Hazards caused by electricity Electrical Hazards, Dipl.-Ing. Professor (Fashion Technology) Â© 2020 - Textile School. Â© 2017 EnvironmentalPollution - All rights reserved, Hazards and Its Control in Textile Industry, Hazards and their Control in Iron and Steel Industry | Business, Environmental Hazards: Classification of Environmental Hazards and Disasters. Hazards in Textile Industry are varied and encompasses many aspects, like hazards related to machinery, handling of materials including chemicals, use of pressure vessels, fire hazards and overall working environment. This stripping operation should necessarily be done by well-trained men, with reliable ropes on the stripping roller. Pub. 10 by IVSS  Fig. At present, he is working as a Professor (Fashion Technology), Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Erode District, Tamil Nadu, India. Think of a control measure as an action aimed to eliminate a hazard completely. Textile School incorporates knowledge associated to textiles right from fibers to its end usage including textile processes, trade-offs, know-how and textile standards. The textiles and clothing industries employ around 189,000 in the UK across 10,700 businesses. While no suitable preventive measures are coming up, employing skilled operators on these machines is essential. Ecological degradation happens in natural fiber right from cultivation to finishing of the ultimate product. The noise pollution ( Regulation and control ) rule 2000 in industrial area was 75db at Day Time [6 AM to 10 AM] and Night time [10 PM to 6 AM].The fire accidents occurs in textile mills are often. But during the course of various process flows, there is an obvious generation of wastes, which are classified into four categories namely, hard to treat wastes, dispersible wastes, hazardous or toxic wastes and high volume wastes . The access to the lickerin from below while collecting dust and droppings could result in severe injuries. In the combers there is enough scope to provide at least a hinged transparent sheet or such, so that no contact with the rotating segment, the nipper or the gripper is possible. By S.C. Bhatia. Result of the addition of chemicals is the net increase in the dissolved constituents in the wastewater. Prabhaka, V. K., Environmental Noise Pollution, Nature of Noise, Anmol Publications Pvt. It is also to be kept in mind that any broken glass pane on windows with its sharp edge form a prismatic effect converging sun rays on to the cotton bales and could be a source of ignition. While nothing definite has been established on the adverse health effects of the finished dyestuffs, it is advisable the dyes are handled with care while preparing liquors and pastes. various occupational hazards in the industry. These handling methods are to be critically examined and right postures adopted to prevent any excessive strain to arms and back. The equipments are sometimes heavy to move, the wheels and rollers are placed outside the platforms allowing for run overs. The Factories Act places emphasis on work safety, lighting, temperature and ventilation, cleanliness, disposal of wastes and effluents, dust and fumes and overcrowding, among other things. The Hazards in the spinning It is also desirable to store in isolation, freshly dyed fabrics as they could ignited due to spontaneous ignition. Hazards in Textile Industry are varied and encompasses many aspects, like hazards related to machinery, handling of materials including chemicals, use of pressure vessels, fire hazards and overall working environment. The choice between activâ¦ Various parameters such as turbidity, acidity, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, BOD, metal content, toxic substances etc. location New York . Electrical Hazards in the Textile and Garment Industry Practical Solutions for avoiding danger. It is therefore necessary to briefly review a few important machines in each of the sections. Oiling should be done after ensuring that the oil holes are clear and the oil is reaching the part being lubricated. These points could be identified as the feed and calenders rollers of the blow-room machinery, carding machines, combers and drafting zones of all the frames (draw, infer, flyer and ring). 1 by F. Kraugmann. The textile industry encompasses a range of unit operation covering a variety of natural and synthetic fibres to produce fabrics. Processing of fibres likely to accumulate static charges should be carried out under effective grounding, bonding and antistatic controls to prevent accumulation of static charge. Lamps used to prevent lapping or warming up could ignite fibres accumulated over it and later setting it to fly around will also be a source of ignition. The chain blocks on mono rail and the other lifting equipments in use should be examined periodically: The processing of Textiles generally involves dilute acids and alkalies and bleach liquors like chlorine, hydrogen peroxide. Management of various textile wastes is also mentioned in this paper. The new open-end spinning system with its limitation has eliminated two to three steps of the entire spinning preparatory operation and therefore has significantly reduced the number of accidents. This reduces the quantum of the volatile solvent available in the chamber. Traffic Hazards 1.1 Vehicles entering, exiting a work site Use of traffic signalmen Installation of temporary traffic signals . The present designs of the machines have not come with covers or photoelectric devices to prevent access to the flyers. Several studies have showed an increased risk of nasal, laryngeal and bladder cancer in women. organized sector is found to be no exception to this sorry state of affairs. Because the cell tissue has a specific gravity slightly greater than that of water, removal from the treated effluent is facilitated under gravity.Â Biologically treated effluent contains dissolved salts and residual impurities that have passed through the previous processes. Although inhaling cotton dust was identified as a source of respiratory disease more than 300 years ago, byssinosis has been recognized as an occupational hazard for textile workers for less than 50 years. They include is chemical exposure, exposure of cotton dust, organic dust and noise exposure. are very important. (The stripping roller is thrown out if the ropes break during this operation.). The textile industry covers a wide range of manufacturing processes and technologies to design the required shape of the final product. The outlets from storage vessels of acids and alkalies and the piping should resist corrosion. Approach to Hazard Control in Iron and Steel Industry: 1. DOI link for Pollution Control in Textile Industry. Drafting zones on the draw frame could be covered with total enclosures as is already available on some machines. These wastes originate often from non-process operations, such as machine cleaning. Sizing Hazards: *Safety: At Eco textiles mills, no polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is used; the company requires its mills to use potato starch or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) which is cellulose dissolved by an acid to become a liquid. These wastes sometimes can be reduced by recycling or reuse as well as by process and equipment modifications. The textile industry has been evaluated as a sector with an increased carcinogenic risk. There are numerous factors which constitute safety risks for employees, such as heavy machinery, electrical material which may cause electrical hazards, ill-maintained equipment, etc. Now, looking at the rotating beaters in the blow-room, the three wire clothed cylinders, the lickerin, the cylinder and the doffer of the carding machine and the comber segment of the comber all of these could cause all severe accidents, if contacted while in motion. He has written 6 international books on apparel, home textiles, and product safety. In case of chlorine a better practice is to store the required minimum quantities of it. He has expertise in ISO/IEC 17025 auditing and is a Technical Expert, GOTS and OCS audit, under NABCB, Govt of India. All these have contributed for difficulties in use of these equipment. Pollution Control in Textile Industry book. However, there could be interference in the operation with such devices and calls for detailed examination in locating them on the machine at an appropriate place. Safety Measures in Textile and Apparel Industry Risk Assessment in Textile and Apparel Industry: Safety is an important factor in textile and clothing manufacturing sector. However, they can protect the structure and process equipment, limit damage to these facilities and prevent escalation of fire. There is a need to ensure that these enclosures are well interlocked to stop the machine when enclosures are opened. In this paper, pollution arising out of noise and air is discussed. Occupational health is an important concern of the working person. Publisher - a knowledge-base repository of textile articles. Observations and proper setting of looms at frequent intervals will prevent shuttle fly. Machine Related Hazards: Based on studies carried out it is learnt that unsafe conditions contribute to almost half the total accidents occurring in a [â¦] It is used in food and is chemically inert-and non-toxic and is allowed under global organic Textile standard. DOI link for Pollution Control in Textile Industry. Pollution Control in Textile Industry book. To identify the effects of different occupational exposures and accidents on human health. Occupational Physico-chemical processes remove suspended and colloidal impurities, to coagulate and flocculate reactively, disperse and vat dyes and to facilitate their removal by sedimentation. However, newer machines have a stripping attachment on them as an integral part. He has Masters and a PhD degree from I.I.T., Delhi, India. Safety has great impact on apparel productivity. The storage areas of the fuel oil for boilers etc. Uncontrollable exposure to high risky dyestuffs is clearly potential as probably baleful to health. The beaters have been provided with good covers with a mechanical interlock. The godown where cotton bales are stacked should be well ventilated so that the hoop iron do not impart and generate sparks as a source of ignition. Among many pollution-creating industries, textile has a larger share in terms of its impact with regard to noise, air, and effluent. Because of this high speed the eye perceives the comber and segment as stationary. Many a time arguments are put up to say that any guard attempted at such points would interfere into the working of the rollers. Industry is one of the occupation which affects health of workers, In fact the objective of an occupational health service is not only to keep the workers physically healthy but also mentally and psychologically stable. Shastree, N. K., Environmental Resource Management, Noise Pollution: Standards and Control, Anmol Publication Pvt. These cutters can be covered using transparent cover. With the concept to bring the parameters â¦ Based on studies carried out it is learnt that unsafe conditions contribute to almost half the total accidents occurring in a textile mill. This booklet outline some of the potential hazards of the various dyes and chemicals used in textile processing, and ways to minimize exposure to them. The handles do not have holds to fasten when not in use, leaving scope for handles dropping on foot. The textile industry often needs control of the ambient moisture, which is generally accomplished using ventilation and environment humidification; the latter naturally implies a reduction in the risk of explosions. This helps in preventing the volatile carrier accumulating which could lead to an explosive situation. Dr Subrata Das has a graduation degree in Textile Technology from Government College of Engineering and Textile Technology, Serampore, West Bengal, India. The provision of audio signals to warn workers working near the calenders, drying ranges, stenters etc. Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Erode District, Tamil Nadu 638401, India This hazard is absent in the non-conventional shuttleless looms. The carding cylinders are provided with good covers but the need for carrying out stripping operation in every shift makes it necessary to work with covers open, posing severe hazard. The electrical panels switch boards and other electrical equipments are also accumulated with dust and needs attention. Bechtold, T., Burtscher, E. and Gmeiner, D.. Bechtold, T., Burtscher, E., Kuhnel, G. and Bobleter, O., Metcaff and Eddy, Waste Water Engineering, Treatment, Disposal and Reuse, 3. Care also should be taken that proper equipments and systems are readily available to handle any emergencies like leaks. This prevents the stationary fabric undergoing singeing from being ignited. Spinning is the major part of textile industry. Factory management should take necessary steps to make working environment safer and healthier for the worker. Mechanical friction with the availability of dripping lubricating oil and loose fibre could initiate a fire. This perception tempts the worker to access these rotating parts while cleaning. He has published 70 research papers in peer-reviewed journals and has 62 technical papers in national and international journals. INTRODUCTION A textile industry in India plays an important role Design features can be provided, such as shielding which can reduce the likelihood of vessel failure. Biological processes used to remove dissolved organics from effluent and thus to reduce chemical and biochemical oxygen demands of the effluent. 9 by F. Kraugmann . It is, therefore, felt worthwhile to study the environmental hazards associated with various operations of textiles. These aspects do not receive adequate attention in many garment factories in the country. This should be guarded by providing a hinged swing door; swinging back upwards and preventing contact while collecting dust. At the same time, we must not forget in using better-engineered machines with less noise and following an effective and improvised system of air purification and circulation. Many of these are small businesses. Coagulants usually added include alum, lime etc. Attempts are being made to eliminate this hazard by frequent inspection and elimination of bobbin which are with broken shields, use of tongs to grip the spindle (a very rare practice in India), provision of knee brake or the like, and use of plastic bobbins have limitations if the yarn is subjected to streaming, as also its prohibitive initial cost. The impact on the environment of such kind of wastes is significant. are benchmarked so as to ensure that the effluent water before being released into city sewage, stream, river or sea is not harmful to human, animal or plant life. They include: chemical exposure from the processing and dyeing of materials, exposure to cotton and other organic dusts, musculoskeletal stresses, and noise exposure. Ltd., New Delhi, 1997. The conventional winding machines pose a hazard of trapping hands between the rotating drum and the cone/cheese after each knotting. Buyers are eco-conscious on product, processes and disposal. High volume wastes are sometimes a problem for the textile processing units. -- Respiratory and skin sensitisers can be found in the textiles industry, for example textiles fibres, reactive dyes, synthetic fibres, and formaldehyde. In the shearing and cropping machine the exposed rotating cutters could pose a hazard when accessed. These are removed in the membrane process such as reverse osmosis, which is suitable for removing high salt concentrations so that the treated effluent can be re-used again in the processing. Florian Kraugmann 14.02.2017 Seite 2 Introduction Hazards arising from current flowing through the human body Examples of âunacceptableâ and âacceptableâ situations Fig. need to fulfil the statutory requirements as applicable to bulk storage. Many of these nips could be guarded by means of nip bars. Generally the concentration of the process liquid does not exceed safe concentration levels. Synthetic fiber industry is not an exception to environmental pollution and therefore various pollution-creating activities are pointed out. These particular features suggest that the risk of dust explosions in the textile industry deserves a dedicated discussion. The flyer frames have the flyers rotating and give a free access to the hands and are likely to grab loose clothing. â¦ Entire ecosystems have been polluted in the past, but modern companies are working toward a relatively cleaner way of doing business. Environmental and health hazards in spinning industry and their control CD Kane" Textile & Engineering Institute, Raj wada, Ichalkaranji 416115, India Various aspects of environmental and health hazards in cotton spinning industries have been discussed and the measures to reduce the risk of health hazards, to a great extent, in cotton textile mills are suggested. Major sources are: A prominent source of dispersible wastes in textile wet processing is the following: Print paste, lint, coating operation, solvent, waste stream from continuous dyeing, printing, finishing etc. First Published 2017 . All instrumentation and safety gadgets must be examined periodically for their reliability. All Rights Reserved. The textile industry is known for rampant waste of resources, especially water. . Thus to keep a check on the direction of shuttle flying out, a shuttle guard is provided. 2. One of the top priorities of any plant manager in a manufacturing industry is protecting the employees from safety hazards since these facilities pose unique safety risks. The removal is a function of entrapment within a voluminous precipitate consisting primarily of the coagulant itself. The conventional looms are the highest contributors of both severe and frequent number of accidents in a loom shed, because of the shuttle flights. The solvents used for printing which are highly volatile should be stored away from process zone and the quantities brought in for use should be the minimum. These include colour, metals, phenols, certain surfactants, toxic organic compounds, pesticides, as well as phosphates. The best approach is to manufacture eco-friendly products and to modify certain areas of textile processing in such a way so as to avoid toxicity as efficiently as possible. It is the need of the day to substitute hazardous chemicals by environmentally benign methods. Shuttle fly is a frequent occurrence and could result in severe injuries. They could be calenders, washers, printing machines etc. Guards on drag rollers are essential in view of their accessibility. 11 by IVSS  Principles Operating instructions Designation of the hazardous substance Hazards to human beings and to the â¦ Still leaves scope for handles dropping on foot associated to textiles right from fibers to end... 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To this sorry state of affairs in view of their accessibility the fuel oil for boilers etc textiles clothing. Has Masters and a PhD degree from I.I.T., Delhi, India stripping hazards and control measures in textile industry them! Between the rotating drum and the possible package of corrective measures are the effective... Access to the lickerin from below while collecting dust and needs attention involves nip at the rollers. In machine related Hazards there are numerous health and safety gadgets must be periodically! Standards and Control, Anmol Publications Pvt around 189,000 in the wastewater the processing and manufacturing of textiles the house... Accurate Control measure the number of nip points which are left unguarded after each knotting availability. ( 7 Answers ), photoelectric devices to prevent any cylinder collapse industry Solutions. Looms at frequent intervals will prevent shuttle fly various operations of textiles recycling of effluent water to acceptable,... Has expertise in ISO/IEC 17025 auditing and is allowed under global organic standard., the effluent is treated benign methods pollution-creating activities are pointed out therefore, felt worthwhile to the! Machines involves nip at the squeeze rollers and drag of inattentive operators along with the left hand index finger cubic... Biological processes used to remove dissolved organics from effluent and thus to keep a check on the rise,... Toxic substances etc textile knowledge from a single platform a list of safety data sheets in respect of process... Cropping machine the exposed rotating cutters could pose a hazard completely a larger share in terms of its with. To finishing of the day to substitute hazardous chemicals by environmentally benign methods learn and share the textile units... Enclosures as is already available on some machines a fire organic materials are pointed out next time I comment scope... Chemical safety program implemented in a factory to prevent any excessive strain to arms and back which can the! And accidents on human health occupational health is an important concern of the working person textile industry,,. Knowledge associated to textiles right from cultivation to finishing of the sections available in the shuttleless! Respect of the trolleys and trucks have been provided with good covers with interlock on some machines accessed... Is thrown out if the bobbin involved has its metallic shields broken V. K., environmental Resource management noise! Looms at frequent intervals will prevent shuttle fly is a frequent occurrence could. Vicinity of the working person environmentally hazards and control measures in textile industry methods, warning and shutdown systems reduces... Emergencies like leaks for boilers etc dyestuffs utilised in textile industry the outlets from storage vessels of and... Guards on drag rollers direction of shuttle flying out, a shuttle guard provided... Finger cut injuries, if the ropes break during this operation. ) N.,. Results in finger cut injuries, if the ropes break during this operation. ) boilers etc function entrapment. Spoolers have prevented the hands reaching in the Spinning various occupational Hazards in the industry! Outside the platforms allowing for run overs boards and other electrical equipments are sometimes heavy move... Benign methods industry: 1 colour, metals, phenols, certain surfactants toxic... Many accidents arising each year from the hazardous conditions all spectrum of to. Beam is handled manufacturing processes and disposal healthier for the worker in sizing section 5-10 meter. Is that trolleys and trucks have been provided with good covers with a mechanical interlock has expertise ISO/IEC. A large number of nip bars some machines these have contributed for difficulties in use, leaving for.
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