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After the development an… Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships: risk factors related to infestations. Cooper DL. Bed bug bites (Cimex lectularius) with targetoid lesions on initial presentation. Ter Poorten MC, Prose NS. Get free access to newly published articles. Pest control and eradication is challenging due to insecticide resistance, lack of effective products, and health concerns about spraying mattresses with pesticides. Cooper R, Harlan HJ. We also reviewed reference lists from retrieved articles and textbooks to identify additional articles of interest. Issues in Prevention, Pest Control, and Eradication. Experimental assessment of bedbugs (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus ) and mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti formosus ) as vectors of human immunodeficiency virus. J-11504 by the Mississippi Agriculture and Forestry Experiment Station, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State. Quiz Ref IDThere are few data to support bed bugs as vectors for transmission of human disease agents. Cestari TF, Martignago BF. Permethrin-impregmented bednets reduce nuisance arthropods in Gambian houses. Eight months later, after an experimental bed bug bite, he developed a wheal at the bite site with generalized itching that required epinephrine administration to resolve his symptoms. They feed on human blood, but may also eat blood from other mammals, including cats and dogs. 3 PubMed TI Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) and clinical consequences of their bites. El-Masry SA, Kotkat AM. The species C. pilosellus lives on bats and, although known as a bat bug, will bite humans and is sometimes found living in human dwellings.  et al. Bed bugs are extremely difficult to eradicate1,86,89 and pest control issues relating to bed bugs and eradication procedures have been recently reviewed in detail.1,86,90 Pesticides are typically evaluated in the laboratory and less commonly in the field with demonstration-type studies, a common practice in University Extension Services. During this manual search of reference lists, we found (and included) 6 key medical articles written in German and Portuguese. In 1 trial,55 insecticide spraying of children's dwellings effectively reduced exposure to bed bugs and, in another trial,91 insecticide-treated bed nets for malaria control helped eliminate bed bugs from infested homes. Cimex lectularius vs Cimex hemipterus These two species of bed bugs can be easily distinguished by looking at the prothorax, the first segment of the thorax. Systemic immediate allergic reactions to arthropod stings and bites. Bed bug reinfestation rates in rural Africa. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.405. Sternberg L. A case for asthma caused by the. Oswalt ML, Kemp SF. We sought information using manual searches to identify pertinent articles in sources frequently not included in computer databases. However, the descriptions of the “urticaria” in 1 study suggests erythema multiforme.83 In another study, a man staying in a hotel awakened during the night with severe itching and urticaria on his arm and neck; bed bugs were found in the room.84 He developed angioedema and hypotension, was hospitalized, and his electrocardiogram showed transient anterolateral ischemia. The bite marks are similar to that of a mosquito or a flea — a slightly swollen and red area that may itch Bed bugs bounce back: but do they transmit disease? Rapid rise in bed bug populations: the need to include them in the differential diagnosis of mysterious skin rashes.  et al. Symptoms may take between minutes to days to appear and itchiness is generally present. After feeding on an infectious blood meal, bed bugs excrete hepatitis B surface antigen in their feces and could be a possible source of HBV infection by contamination of skin lesions or mucosal surfaces, or by inhalation of dust. Mumcuoglu KY. A case of imported bedbug (Cimex lectularius) infestation in Israel. Potter MF. JAMA Dermatol. JAMA Dermatol. Purification and cloning of the salivary nitrophorin from the hemipteran, Valenzuela JG, Guimaraes JA, Ribeiro JM. Cimex is a genus of insects in the family Cimicidae. Customize your JAMA Network experience by selecting one or more topics from the list below. Health consequences include nuisance biting and cutaneous and systemic reactions. All Rights Reserved. A wide range of empirical treatments, including antibiotics, antihistamines, topical and oral corticosteroids, and epinephrine, have been used for bite reactions with varying results. © 2020 American Medical Association. Data Extraction A trained medical reference librarian assisted with the literature search. Although transmission of more than 40 human diseases has been attributed to bed bugs, there is little evidence that they are vectors of communicable disease. The Cimicidae of the Americas and Oceanic Islands: a checklist and bibliography. For pest control, PubMed and Toxline searches (1960-October 2008) were performed using the keywords bed bugs, Cimex, control, prevention, and eradication. Delayed reaction to bed bug bites. Romero A, Potter MF, Potter DA, Haynes KF. While these bites can be small, if they swell and become itchy, they are noticeable. Most. The most concentrated salivary solution caused a papule with a blister. College Park, MD: Thomas Say Foundation; 1966, New York, NY: J Bale Sons & Danielsson Ltd; 1916, London, England: Christian Literature Society for India; 1913, 5 ed. Host reactions to bug bites: a literature review and annotated bibliography, part II. Brotman B, Prince AM, Godrey HR. Ryan N, Peters B, Miller P. A survey of bedbugs in short-stay lodges. No randomized controlled trials on bite reactions, risk factors for outbreaks, or treatment modalities were identified during this review. Specifically, we looked for information that substantiated the presence of bed bug exposure by identifying insects or their cast skins in the environment where the patient noted a clinical reaction. Not all persons bitten by bed bugs display cutaneous lesions. Criteria used to select studies about bed bug prevention, control, and eradication were (1) documentation of bed bugs in the environment, and (2) documentation that a prevention or eradication measure quantitatively decreased or prevented bed bugs in a specific environment. Hamburger F, Dietrich A. Lichen urticatus exogenes. J Allergy Clin Immunol. Study concept and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting of the manuscript, critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content, and administrative, technical, or material support: Goddard, deShazo. Kemper H. Beobachtungen ueber den Stech-und Saugakt der Bettwanze und seine Wirkung auf die menschliche Haut. Adult bedbugs are 5-7 mm in length.  et al. Physical description and life cycle of tropical bed bugs. Scarupa MD, Economides A. Bedbug bites masquerading as urticaria. Hiding places are usually within 1 to 2 meters of suitable hosts and include seams in mattresses, crevices in box springs, backsides of headboards, spaces under baseboards or loose wallpaper, and even behind hanging pictures. This appears to reflect host immunological responses to salivary proteins. Bed bugs sense and seek warmth, a trait that helps them locate warm-blooded hosts.27 They generally avoid light, hide during the day, and feed at night. 149(6):751-6. . Insecticide treated nets: impact on vector populations and relevance of initial intensity of transmission and pyrethroid resistance. Steps necessary for bed bug eradication include (1) proper identification of the bed bug species present, because some bat-infesting species may be found inside homes; (2) education of persons involved; (3) thorough inspection of infested and adjacent areas; (4) implementation of chemical and nonchemical control measures; and (5) follow-up to evaluate the success of eradication.86,87 Prevention of bed bug bites is best achieved with avoidance, because no repellents for the insects have been demonstrated conclusively to be effective. Papers that reported only laboratory assays of pesticides were excluded. May M. Bedbugs bounce back in all 50 states. Important sites to inspect include mattress cords, cracks and crevices in box springs, and the back of headboards. Studies primarily concerned with controlling other insects in the home environment, but which peripherally mentioned bed bugs, were excluded. Reproduced with permission from Wendy C. Varnado. The ones that typically plague humans are the common bedbug Cimex lectularius and the tropical bedbug Cimex hemipterus.A few decades ago, bedbugs were somewhat of a novelty in developed countries. Some … After a blood meal, the bugs may increase in length by 30% to 50% and in weight by 150% to 200% (Figure 1B).27. Fletcher MG, Axtell RC. Newly hatched bed bugs are about 1 mmlong and are colorless to cream colored. However, no viral replication has been observed within the insects and no virus has been detected in bed bug feces.32,33 Mechanical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus has not been demonstrated using an artificial system of feeding bed bugs through membranes.33, The best candidate for human disease transmission by bed bugs is HBV. The use of any treatment strategy for symptomatic bed bug bites has not been established. Stercorarial shedding and transtadial transmission of hepatitis B virus by common bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). evaluated the articles. Abou Gamra EM, el Shayed FA, Morsy TA, Hussein HM, Shehata ES. Ms Wright did not receive any compensation for her contribution. Our review of the medical literature on this topic along with our clinical experience suggests that a useful classification of reactions should be based on local cutaneous vs systemic symptoms. Data Synthesis Fifty-three articles met inclusion criteria and were summarized. Jupp PG, Lyons SF. Local cutaneous reactions have been reported to be uniphasic or multiphasic in timing and are similar to those reactions we have previously described for other insect bites and stings.78. These insects then took blood meals from chimpanzees, but no infections or seroconversions resulted in the primates. A trained medical reference librarian assisted us with the literature search. Terms of Use| Adults are reddish brown (chestnut) in color, whereas immatures are much smaller and may be light yellow. Two species, Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, are known as bed bugs and frequently feed on humans, although other species may parasitize humans opportunistically. In general, the products have not performed as well as against other pests and eradication often requires nonchemical tactics as well. Webb PA, Happ CM, Maupin GO, Johnson B, Ou C-Y, Monath TP. The resurgence of the common bedbug Cimex lectularius in this decade is well documented. Public health experts in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, reported a 100% increase in telephone complaints about bed bugs during a 6-month period in 2002.4 In Germany, bed bug infestations increased from 5 reported cases in 1992 to 76 cases in 2004.24 In Australia, bed bug samples submitted to a government public agency increased by 400% during the period of 2001-2004 compared with 1997-2000.25. Their bites can result in a number of health impacts including skin rashes, psychological effects, and allergic symptoms. Almost all articles concerning the health and medical effects from bed bugs were case reports of 1 person or a few persons bitten, descriptions of the bite reactions, and treatments given. Generally, bed bugs are most active at … Author Affiliations: Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State (Dr Goddard), and Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (Drs Goddard and deShazo). The mosquito repellant, oil of lemon eucalyptus, may help.88 Bed bugs and their fecal matter are easily visible (Figure 4). Harlan HJ. Objectives To present current knowledge of the health and medical effects of bed bugs and to explore key issues in pest control and eradication efforts. All Rights Reserved. Bedbugs are well known nocturnal hematophagous insects. The common human bedbug, Cimex lectularius, is distributed worldwide [1,2].The bedbug bite is painless and the skin reaction varies from small macules to significant bullous eruptions [3-5].Bedbug infestations are common in the developing world, occurring in settings of unsanitary living conditions and … Curtis CF, Jana-Kara B, Maxwell CA. Context Bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations are rapidly increasing worldwide. Abstract. Jupp PG, McElligott SE. Newberry K, Mchunu ZM, Cebekhulu SQ. Purification, cloning, and expression of an apyrase from the bed bug. Bed bugs 101: the basics of Cimex lectularius. 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